What are PSUs?

A Government-owned corporation is termed as a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). This term is used to refer to companies in which the government (either the federal Union Government or the many state or territorial governments, or both) own a majority (51 percent or more) of the company equity. There are in all 251 PSU companies in India as on 2012. PSU’s are created by the Government of India to undertake commercial activities on behalf of Government of India. Several Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) under the aegis of Government of India regularly provide tremendous employment opportunities in various technical and management areas.

Public Sector Enterprises (companies) are divided into three categories:
  • Maharatna
  • Navratna
  • Miniratna CPSEs


The Government of India established the Maharatna Companies in 2009. This Status raises a company’s investment ceiling from Rs. 1,000 crore to Rs. 5,000 crore. The Maharatna firms can now decide on investments of up to 15 per cent of their net worth in a project. On the other hand, the Navratna companies could invest up to Rs 1,000 crore without explicit government approval

Electrical Engineering
  • Having Navratna status.
  • Listed on Indian stock exchange with minimum prescribed public shareholding under SEBI regulations
  • An average annual turnover of more than Rs. 20,000. crore during the last 3 years. Earlier it was Rs 25,000 Crore.
  • An average annual net worth of more than Rs. 10,000 crore during the last 3 years. Earlier it was Rs. 15,000 crore.
  • An average annual net profit after tax of more than Rs. 2500 crore during the last 3 years. Earlier it was Rs. 5000 crore.
  • Should have significant global presence/international operations.


Navratna was the title given originally to nine Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) identified by the Government of Indiain 1997 as “public sector companies that have comparative advantages”, giving them greater autonomy to compete in the global market so as to “support [them] in their drive to become global giants”. The number of PSEs having Navratna status has been raised to 16, the most recent addition being Oil India Limited.

To be qualified as a Navratna, the company must obtain a score of 60 out of 100. The score is based on six parameters which include net profit to net worth, total manpower cost to total cost of production or cost of services, PBDIT (Profit before depreciation, interest and taxes) to capital employed, PBDIT to turnover, EPS (Earning per Share) and Inter-Sectoral performance. Additionally, a company must first be a Mini-Ratna and have four independent directors on its board before it can be made a Navratna. The Navratna status gives privileges to enhance financial and operational autonomy and empowers to invest up to Rs. 1000 crores or 15% of their net worth on a single project without seeking government approval. In a year, these companies can spend up to 30% of their net worth not exceeding Rs. 1000 crores. They will also have the freedom to enter joint ventures, form alliances and float subsidiaries abroad.

Electrical Engineering
  • Bharat Electronics Limited
  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
  • Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
  • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
  • Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited
  • National Aluminium Company Limited
  • National Mineral Development Corporation Limited
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited
  • Oil India Limited
  • Power Finance Corporation Limited
  • Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
  • Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
  • Shipping Corporation of India Limited
  • Gas Authority of India Limited
Electrical Engineering

Miniratna PSUs

In addition, the government created another category called Miniratna. Miniratnas can also enter into joint ventures, set subsidiary companies and overseas offices but with certain conditions. In 2002, there were 61 government enterprises that were awarded Miniratna status. However, at present, there are 67 government enterprises that were awarded Miniratna status.

Category I

This designation applies to PSEs that have made profits continuously for the last three years or earned a net profit of Rs. 30 crore or more in one of the three years. These miniratnas granted certain autonomy like incurring capital expenditure without government approval up to Rs. 500 crore or equal to their net worth, whichever is lower.

  • Projects & Development India limited
  • Airports Authority of India
  • Antrix Corporation Limited
  • Balmer Lawrie & Co. Limited
  • Bharat Dynamics Limited
  • BEML Limited
  • Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
  • Bridge & Roof Company (India) Limited
  • Central Warehousing Corporation
  • Central Coalfields Limited
  • Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited
  • Cochin Shipyard Limited
  • Container Corporation of India Limited
  • Dredging Corporation of India Limited
  • Engineers India Limited
  • Ennore Port Limited
  • Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited
  • Goa Shipyard Limited
  • Hindustan Copper Limited
  • HLL Lifecare Limited
  • Hindustan Newsprint Limited
  • Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited
  • Housing and Urban Development Corporation
  • India Tourism Development Corporation
  • Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation
  • IRCON International Limited
  • Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited.
  • Mazagaon Dock Limited
  • Mahanadi Coalfields Limited
  • Manganese Ore (India) Limited
  • Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited
  • Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited
  • Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India
  • MSTC Limited
  • National Fertilizers Limited
  • National Seeds Corporation Limited
  • NHPC Limited
  • Northern Coalfields Limited
  • Numaligarh Refinery Limited
  • ONGC Videsh Limited
  • Pawan Hans Helicopters
  • Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited
  • RITES Limited
  • Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam
  • Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited
  • South Eastern Coalfields Limited
  • State Trading Corporation of India Limited
  • Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Limited
  • Telecommunications Consultants (India) Limited
  • Western Coalfields Limited
  • Water & Power Consultancy (India) Limited
  • RailTel Corporation of India Ltd
  • Bharat Pumps & Compressors Limited
  • Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited
  • Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited
  • Ed.CIL (India) Limited
  • Engineering Projects (India) Limited
  • FCI Aravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited
  • Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited
  • HMT (International) Limited
  • HSCC (India) Limited
  • India Trade Promotion Organisation
  • Indian Medicines & Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited
  • M E C O N Limited
  • National Film Development Corporation Limited
  • National Small Industries Corporation Limited
  • P E C Limited
  • Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited
  • Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited
  • Tata Steel Limited


The Eligibility criteria for PSUs vary from company to company. List of companies with their Eligibility criteria for Management trainee / Engineer / Engineering Graduates / Executive Trainees.


Company Criteria
HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited ) Graduate in Mechanical/ Electronics/ Electrical/ Production/Computer Science/ Metallurgy/ Aeronautic Branches of Engineering from any recognized Institution/University. General/ OBC candidates should have secured 65% marks and SC/ST candidates should have secured a minimum of 55% Marks. in the aggregate (average of marks scored for all the Semesters/ Years) Or corresponding CGPA Ratings / Gradations in their Engineering Degree Examinations. Engineering Graduates in the Aeronautical Branch with minimum aggregate 60% marks (for General/OBC) and 50% for SC/ST would be eligible to apply. Applications should be submitted strictly ‘ONLINE’ by logging to HAL Website after recruitment notification
NTPC Students belonging to SC/ST/Physically Challenged categories (Visually Handicapped / Hearing Handicapped / Orthopaedically Handicapped ) and pursuing full time degree course in Engineering in the disciplines of Electrical, Instrumentation, Mechanical, Computer Science, Electronics / Telecommunication from a college / university institute recognized by the Govt.Of India and should be in the Third Year are eligible to apply for the exam.
HPCL Recruitment of Officer Trainees- Engineering Disciplines Full time Graduates in Engineering / Technology in Civil, Chemical, Electrical, Instrumentation, Mechanical and Electronics & Telecommunications Discipline from a recognised Indian University / Institute. Max Age Limit.SC/ST: 30 years (as on 16th Jan, 2009), after allowing age relaxation as per Govt. Directives. OBC: 28 years (as on 16th Jan, 2009) , after allowing age relaxation as per Govt. Directives SC/ST candidates scoring minimum 50% (in aggregate) and OBC Candidates scoring minimum 60% (in aggregate) in the qualifying examination are eligible to apply. Those candidates who will be appearing for their Final Year Examination by July, 2009 can also apply. SC/ST candidates scoring minimum 50% (in aggregate) and OBC Candidates scoring minimum 60% (in aggregate) till the last semester (as of 16th Jan’09) are eligible to apply. However, their eligibility for the selection will be subject to their obtaining minimum 60 % (For SC/ST-minimum 50 %) in aggregate in qualifying degree. Written Test/ Interview: Candidates fulfilling all of the above criteria will be eligible for appearing for Written Test (objective type consisting of two parts – General Aptitude and Academic Knowledge). The candidates will be called for the Personal Interview as per the policy of the Corporation.
Bhel (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited) Full time Bachelor’s Degree in relevant discipline (Mechanical / Electrical / Electrical & Electronics) from a recognized Institute, with minimum 60% marks in aggregate. Age: Upper Age Limit (as on 01.01.2010): 30 years

PSU’s Entrance Exam Question Paper sections

  • Technical Section: Subject specialization of related stream
  • Non-Technical Section: General Awareness, Current Affairs, English Language, Reasoning & Aptitude. Hence to crack PSU competitive exam, candidate should prepare for both technical and non-technical sections, where 50% to 70% questions are from technical and remaining questions from non-technical sections.